Isso ships with a built-in web server, which is useful for the initial setup and may be used in production for low-traffic sites (up to 20 requests per second). Running a “real” WSGI server supports nice things such as UNIX domain sockets, daemonization and solid HTTP handler. WSGI servers are more stable, secure and web-scale than the built-in web server.
gevent, coroutine-based network library
uWSGI, full-featured uWSGI server
gunicorn, Python WSGI HTTP Server for UNIX
mod_wsgi, Apache interface to WSGI
mod_fastcgi, Apache interface to FastCGI
uberspace.de, try this guide (in german)
Probably the easiest deployment method. Install with PIP (requires libevent):
$ pip install gevent
Then, just use the
isso executable as usual. Gevent monkey-patches Python’s
standard library to work with greenlets.
To execute Isso, just use the commandline interface:
$ isso -c my.cfg run
Unfortunately, gevent 0.13.2 does not support UNIX domain sockets (see #295 and #299 for details).
Isso has special support for uWSGI, namely fast IPC caching, job spooling and delayed jobs. It is the author’s choice, but not the only one. You need uWSGI 1.9 or higher, fortunately you can install it from PyPi:
~> apt-get install build-essential python-dev ~> pip install uwsgi
For convenience, I recommend a INI-style configuration (you can also supply everything as command-line arguments):
[uwsgi] http = :8080 master = true ; set to `nproc` processes = 4 cache2 = name=hash,items=1024,blocksize=32 ; you may change this spooler = /tmp/isso/mail module = isso.run ; uncomment if you use a virtual environment ; virtualenv = /path/to/isso env = ISSO_SETTINGS=/path/to/isso.cfg
Then, create the spooling directory and start Isso via uWSGI:
~> mkdir /tmp/isso/mail ~> uwsgi /path/to/uwsgi.ini
Gunicorn ‘Green Unicorn’ is a Python WSGI HTTP Server for UNIX with a pre-fork worker ported from Ruby’s Unicorn project. Install gunicorn via PIP:
$ pip install gunicorn
To execute Isso, use a command similar to:
$ export ISSO_SETTINGS="/path/to/isso.cfg" $ gunicorn -b localhost:8080 -w 4 --preload isso.run
First, create a startup script, called isso.wsgi. If Isso is in your system module search path, then the script is quite simple. This script is included in the isso distribution as run.py:
import os from isso import make_app from isso import dist, config application = make_app( config.load( config.default_file(), "/path/to/isso.cfg"), multiprocessing=True)
If you have installed Isso in a virtual environment, then you will have to add the path of the virtualenv to the site-specific paths of Python:
import site site.addsitedir("/path/to/isso_virtualenv") import os from isso import make_app from isso import dist, config application = make_app( config.load( config.default_file(), "/path/to/isso.cfg", multiprocessing=True)
Using the aforementioned script will load system modules when available and modules from the virtualenv otherwise. Should you want the opposite behavior, where modules from the virtualenv have priority over system modules, the following script does the trick:
import os import site import sys # Remember original sys.path. prev_sys_path = list(sys.path) # Add the new site-packages directory. site.addsitedir("/path/to/isso_virtualenv") # Reorder sys.path so new directories at the front. new_sys_path =  for item in list(sys.path): if item not in prev_sys_path: new_sys_path.append(item) sys.path.remove(item) sys.path[:0] = new_sys_path from isso import make_app from isso import dist, config application = make_app( config.load( config.default_file(), "/path/to/isso.cfg", multiprocessing=True)
The last two scripts are based on those given by mod_wsgi documentation.
The Apache configuration will then be similar to the following:
<VirtualHost *> ServerName example.org WSGIDaemonProcess isso user=www-data group=www-data threads=5 WSGIScriptAlias /mounted_isso_path /path/to/isso.wsgi </VirtualHost>
You will need to adjust the user and group according to your Apache installation and security policy. Be aware that the directory containing the comments database must be writable by the user or group running the WSGI daemon process: having a writable database only is not enough, since SQLite will need to create a lock file in the same directory.
You can use this method if your hosting provider doesn’t allow you to have long running processes. If FastCGI has not yet been configured in your server, please follow these steps:
This information may be incorrect, if you have more knowledge on how to deploy Python via mod_fastcgi, consider extending/correcting this section.
For more information, see Flask: Configuring Apache.
LoadModule fastcgi_module /usr/lib64/httpd/modules/mod_fastcgi.so FastCgiServer /var/www/html/yourapplication/app.fcgi -idle-timeout 300 -processes 5 <VirtualHost *> ServerName example.org AddHandler fastcgi-script fcgi ScriptAlias / /var/www/isso.fcgi <Location /> SetHandler fastcgi-script </Location> </VirtualHost>
Next, to run isso as a FastCGI script you’ll need to install
$ pip install flup
Finally, copy’n’paste to /var/www/isso.fcgi (or whatever location you prefer):
#!/usr/bin/env python #: uncomment if you're using a virtualenv # import sys # sys.path.insert(0, '<your_local_path>/lib/python3.<ver>/site-packages') from isso import make_app, dist, config import os from flup.server.fcgi import WSGIServer application = make_app(config.load( config.default_file(), "/path/to/isso.cfg")) WSGIServer(application).run()